Windows Server 2012 Data Center / Standard Retail Version Server
2008 R2 OEM
This is a brand new, factory sealed package of Microsoft Windows
Server 2012 R2 Essentials 64-Bit. It is the full retail
version--NOT Academic, OEM, Not For Resale, Trial, Promotional, or
Upgrade. This is exactly what you would buy in major retail stores
and online sellers. The Microsoft SKU is G3S-00587.
Windows Server 2012
Windows Server 2012, codenamed "Windows Server 8", is the sixth release of Windows Server. It is the server version
of Windows 8 and succeeds Windows Server 2008 R2. Two pre-release
versions, a developer preview and a beta version, were released
during development. The software was generally available to
customers starting on September 4, 2012.
Unlike its predecessor, Windows Server 2012 has no support for
Itanium-based computers, and has four editions. Various features were added or improved
over Windows Server 2008 R2 (with many placing an emphasis on cloud
computing), such as an updated version of Hyper-V, an IP address
management role, a new version of Windows Task Manager, and ReFS, a
new file system. Windows Server 2012 received generally good
reviews in spite of having included the same controversial
Metro-based user interface seen in Windows 8.
The successor to Windows Server 2012, called Windows Server 2012
R2, was released along with Windows 8.1 in October 2013. A service
pack, formally designated Windows Server 2012 R2 Update, was
released in April 2014.
Windows Server 2012, codenamed "Windows Server 8", is the sixth release of Windows Server family of operating systems
developed concurrently with Windows 8. It was not until April 17, 2012 that the company announced that
the final product name would be "Windows Server 2012".
Microsoft introduced Windows Server 2012 and its developer preview
in the BUILD 2011 conference on September 9, 2011. However, unlike Windows 8, the developer preview of Windows Server
2012 was only made available to MSDN subscribers. It included a graphical user interface (GUI) based on Metro design
language and a new Server Manager, a graphical application used for
server management. On February 16, 2012, Microsoft released an update for developer
preview build that extended its expiry date from April 8, 2012 to
January 15, 2013.
Before Windows Server 2012 was finalized, two test builds were made
public. A public beta version of Windows Server 2012 was released
along with the Windows 8 Consumer Preview on February 29, 2012. The release candidate of Windows Server 2012 was released on May
31, 2012, along with the Windows 8 Release Preview.
The product was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012 and
became generally available on September 4, 2012. However, not all editions of Windows Server 2012 were released at
the same time. Windows Server 2012 Essentials was released to
manufacturing on October 9, 2012 and was made generally available on November 1, 2012. As of September 23, 2012, all students subscribed to DreamSpark
program can download Windows Server 2012 Standard or Datacenter
free of charge.
See also: Features new to Windows 8
Unlike its predecessor, Windows Server 2012 can switch between
"Server Core" and "Server with a GUI" installation options without
a full reinstallation. Server Core - an option with a command-line
interface only - is now the recommended configuration. There is
also a third installation option that allows some GUI elements such
as MMC and Server Manager to run, but without the normal desktop,
shell or default programs like File Explorer.
Server Manager has been redesigned with an emphasis on easing
management of multiple servers. The operating system, like Windows 8, uses the Metro-based user
interface unless installed in Server Core mode. Windows Store is available in this version of Windows but is not
installed by default. Windows PowerShell in this version has over 2300 commandlets,
compared to around 200 in Windows Server 2008 R2.
Main article: Windows Task Manager
Windows Server 2012 includes a new version of Windows Task Manager
together with the old version. In the new version the tabs are hidden by default showing
applications only. In the new Processes tab, the processes are
displayed in varying shades of yellow, with darker shades
representing heavier resource use. It lists application names and status, as well as CPU, memory,
hard disk and network utilization. The process information found in
the older versions are now moved to the new Details tab. The
Performance tab shows "CPU", "Memory", "Disk", "Wi-Fi" and
"Ethernet" graphs. The CPU tab no longer displays individual graphs
for every logical processor on the system by default; instead, it
can display data for each non-uniform memory access (NUMA) node.
When displaying data for each logical processor for machines with
more than 64 logical processors, the CPU tab now displays simple
utilization percentages on heat-mapping tiles. The color used for these heat maps is blue, with darker shades
again indicating heavier utilization. Hovering the cursor over any
logical processor's data now shows the NUMA node of that processor
and its ID, if applicable. Additionally, a new Startup tab has been
added that lists startup applications, however this tab does not exist in Windows Server 2012. The new task manager recognizes when a Windows Store app has the
IP address management (IPAM)
Windows Server 2012 has an IP address management role for
discovering, monitoring, auditing, and managing the IP address
space used on a corporate network. The IPAM is used for the
management and monitoring of Domain Name System (DNS) and Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers. Both IPv4 and IPv6 are
Windows Server 2012 has a number of changes to Active Directory
from the version shipped with Windows Server 2008 R2. The Active
Directory Domain Services installation wizard has been replaced by
a new section in Server Manager, and a GUI has been added to the
Active Directory Recycle Bin. Multiple password policies can be set in the same domain. Active Directory in Windows Server 2012 is now aware of any
changes resulting from virtualization, and virtualized domain
controllers can be safely cloned. Upgrades of the domain functional
level to Windows Server 2012 are simplified; it can be performed
entirely in Server Manager. Active Directory Federation Services is
no longer required to be downloaded when installed as a role, and
claims which can be used by the Active Directory Federation
Services have been introduced into the Kerberos token. Windows
Powershell commands used by Active Directory Administrative Center
can be viewed in a "Powershell History Viewer".
Windows Server 2012, along with Windows 8, includes a new version
of Hyper-V, as presented at the Microsoft BUILD event. Many new features have been added to Hyper-V, including network
virtualization, multi-tenancy, storage resource pools,
cross-premises connectivity, and cloud backup. Additionally, many
of the former restrictions on resource consumption have been
greatly lifted. Each virtual machine in this version of Hyper-V can
access up to 64 virtual processors, up to 1 terabyte of memory, and
up to 64 terabytes of virtual disk space per virtual hard disk
(using a new .vhdx format). Up to 1024 virtual machines can be active per host, and up to 8000
can be active per failover cluster. SLAT is a required processor feature for Hyper-V on Windows 8,
while for Windows Server 2012 it is only required for the
supplementary RemoteFX role.
Resilient File System (ReFS), codenamed "Protogon", is a new file system in Windows Server 2012 initially intended for
file servers that improves on NTFS in some respects. Major new
features of ReFS include:
Improved reliability for on-disk structures
ReFS uses B+ trees for all on-disk structures including metadata and file data.
Metadata and file data are organized into tables similar to a
relational database. The file size, number of files in a folder,
total volume size and number of folders in a volume are limited by
64-bit numbers; as a result ReFS supports a maximum file size of 16
Exabytes, a maximum of 18.4 × 1018 folders and a maximum volume size of 1 Yottabyte (with 64 KB
clusters) which allows large scalability with no practical limits
on file and folder size (hardware restrictions still apply). Free
space is counted by a hierarchical allocator which includes three
separate tables for large, medium, and small chunks. File names and
file paths are each limited to a 32 KB Unicode text string.
ReFS employs an allocation-on-write update strategy for metadata, which allocates new chunks for every update transaction and uses
large IO batches. All ReFS metadata has built-in 64-bit checksums
which are stored independently. The file data can have an optional
checksum in a separate "integrity stream", in which case the file
update strategy also implements allocation-on-write; this is
controlled by a new "integrity" attribute applicable to both files
and directories. If nevertheless file data or metadata becomes
corrupt, the file can be deleted without taking the whole volume
offline. As a result of built-in resiliency, administrators do not
need to periodically run error-checking tools such as CHKDSK when
Compatibility with existing APIs and technologies
ReFS does not require new system APIs and most file system filters
continue to work with ReFS volumes. ReFS supports many existing Windows and NTFS features such as
BitLocker encryption, Access Control Lists, USN Journal, change
notifications, symbolic links, junction points, mount points, reparse points,
volume snapshots, file IDs, and oplock. ReFS seamlessly integrates with Storage Spaces, a storage virtualization layer
that allows data mirroring and striping, as well as sharing storage
pools between machines. ReFS resiliency features enhance the mirroring feature provided by
Storage Spaces and can detect whether any mirrored copies of files
become corrupt using background data scrubbing process, which
periodically reads all mirror copies and verifies their checksums
then replaces bad copies with good ones.
Some NTFS features are not supported in ReFS, including named
streams, object IDs, short names, file compression, file level
encryption (EFS), user data transactions, hard links, extended
attributes, and disk quotas. Sparse files are supported. ReFS does not itself offer data deduplication. Dynamic disks with mirrored or striped volumes are replaced with
mirrored or striped storage pools provided by Storage Spaces.
However, in Windows Server 2012, automated error-correction is only
supported on mirrored spaces, and booting from ReFS is not
Windows Server 2012 includes version 8.0 of Internet Information
Services (IIS). The new version contains new features such as SNI,
CPU usage caps for particular websites, centralized management of SSL certificates, WebSocket support and
improved support for NUMA, but few other substantial changes were
Windows Server 2012 supports the following maximum hardware
specifications. Windows Server 2012 improves over its predecessor Windows Server
|Specification||Windows Server 2012||Windows Server 2008 R2|
when Hyper-V is disabled
when Hyper-V is enabled
|Memory||4 TB||2 TB|
|Failover cluster nodes (in any single cluster)||64||16|
Minimum system requirements for Windows Server 2012
|Processor||1.4 GHz, x64|
|Free disk space||32 GB (more if there is at least 16 GB of RAM)|
Windows Server 2012 runs only on x64 processors. Unlike its
predecessor, Windows Server 2012 does not support Itanium.
Upgrades from Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 are
supported, although upgrades from prior releases are not.
Windows Server 2012 has four editions: Foundation, Essentials,
Standard and Datacenter.
Windows Server 2012 R2
Windows Server 2012 R2 was released on October 18, 2013. It was unveiled on June 3, 2013 at TechEd North America. According to Windows Server 2012 R2 datasheet published on May 31,
2013, there are four editions of this operating system: Foundation,
Essentials, Standard and Datacenter. As with Windows Server 2012, the Datacenter and Standard editions
are feature identical, varying only based on licensing
(particularly licensing of virtual instances). The Essentials
edition has the same features as the Datacenter and Standard
products, with some restrictions.
A further update, formally designated Windows Server 2012 R2
Update, was released in April 2014, a cumulative set of security updates, critical updates and
Windows Server 2012 R2 is succeeded by Windows Server 2016.
Q. Do I get a download link to the application?
A. Yes, you will get a download link to the item when you purchase
the particular item..
Q. Are these keys legitimate?
A. Yes, the keys are 100% legitimate and authentic.
Q: Can I verify the keys through Microsoft's Window Genuine
A: Yes, the key will pass WGA as the key is issued directly from
Q: Can I update the products after activating them?
A: Yes, you can update the applications after activating them.
Q: Can I seek Microsoft customer care help if needed in future?
A: Yes, you can get support directly from Microsoft.
Q. Why are the codes available so cheap?
A. We only sell keys, no box, so they are cheap.
Q. Does the keys works on 64 bit Operating system?
A. Keys works on both x86 (32bit) and x64 (64bit) versions of
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